BRAIN HEMORRHAGE

What Is a Brain Hemorrhage?


The medical term “Brain Hemorrhage” refers to a type of stroke that causes bleeding in or around the brain. A brain bleed, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage, requires immediate medical treatment. Blood leakage within the brain causes compression and damage to the brain tissues. A hemorrhagic stroke happens when a blood artery in the brain leaks or breaks, resulting in internal bleeding. Excessive bleeding can cause
compression on the brain tissue, preventing oxygen-rich blood from reaching the brain tissue. This condition may lead to cerebral edema. Hemorrhagic strokes account for around 13% of all strokes worldwide (Rincon & Mayer, 2011). 

Different types of brain hemorrhage exist in medical terminology. Intracranial hemorrhage occurs when bleeding starts anywhere inside the skull. Similarly, intracerebral hemorrhage refers to the bleeding within the brain. Also, subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when bleeding starts between the brain tissue and the meninges (covering of the brain). During blood clotting between the skull and brain, subdural or epidural hematoma occurs. Neurosurgeons emphasize the importance of identifying the location of the bleeding for better treatment. Different types of hemorrhages produce different symptoms within patients.

What are the Causes of a Brain Hemorrhage?

The causes of brain hemorrhage include weak or abnormal blood vessels, high blood pressure, traumatic injury, drug abuse, etc. Among these, brain hemorrhage refers to the most common cause, which weakens the arterial walls and ruptures. Another cause includes an aneurysm that causes a weak spot in the arterial wall which ultimately balloons out and breaks. As a congenital defect, arteriovenous malformations (AVM) can cause brain hemorrhages (Josephson, Frantzias, Samarasekera, & Salman, 2010). Sometimes in the elderly, deposition of amyloid protein along with the arterial wall can cause weakness of the vessels and lead to a hemorrhagic stroke. Drug abuse or cocaine also weakens the blood vessel and leads to brain hemorrhage, particularly in young patients. Some other causes of brain hemorrhage may include brain tumors, liver disease, head trauma or injury, blood or bleeding disorders like hemophilia and sickle cell anemia, etc.

What Are the Common Signs and Symptoms of Brain Hemorrhage?

A brain hemorrhage can result in a variety of symptoms. This condition can cause symptoms similar to a stroke, such as weakness on one side of the body, trouble speaking, numbness, or tingling. Symptoms of brain hemorrhage depend upon the affected part of the brain. Patients may suffer from visual issues if the bleeding occurs in the area of the brain that controls vision. Balance and coordination issues, weakness on one side, numbness, or a sudden seizure can occur during brain hemorrhage. Many people’s speech centers reside on the left side of the brain, and bleeding into this area can cause significant speech problems. A patient may fall unconscious or enter a coma if the bleeding occurs in the lower brain (brainstem), which controls most of the automatic bodily processes (An, Kim, & Yoon, 2017). Furthermore, the symptoms of a brain hemorrhage might appear suddenly and rapidly worsen. Alternatively, the symptoms might develop gradually over several hours or even days. It’s critical to notice these signs and symptoms as soon as possible so that patients can undergo treatment.

How Do Spinal Specialists Diagnose Brain Hemorrhage?

Patients suspecting a stroke should call a Fort Worth Neurosurgeon immediately. The presence of weakness, slurred speech, and/or loss of feelings may indicate brain damage. Neurosurgeons perform a radiological examination, such as computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to observe various signs and locations of brain bleeding (Wu et al., 2017). Neurosurgeons need to find the exact cause of the bleeding to go into the next step of treatment. Neurosurgeons also perform a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) sometimes to confirm evidence of bleeding or rule out other brain issues.

How Do Spinal Specialists Treat Brain Hemorrhage? 

Initial treatment procedure of patients with brain hemorrhage includes controlling blood pressure and respiration. Neurosurgeons use a ventilator to deliver adequate oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. Neurosurgeons also administer intravenous fluid and medications to stabilize the patient’s condition. During the entire period, nurses need to monitor the heart rate, blood oxygen level, and pressure of the patient (Shao, Tu, & Shao, 2019). 

After stabilizing the patient’s body condition, neurosurgeons find the actual causes of the bleeding and perform surgery like a craniotomy according to the patient’s need. Neurosurgeons also administer some medications to reduce the swelling and area of hemorrhages. The survival rate of patients depends upon the location and size of the bleeding. After surgery, patients may take several months to recover. Neurosurgeons advise to perform physical, speech, occupational therapy during this recovery period. For any information, please contact us.

If You are in need of a Fort Worth Neurosurgeon, Contact Longhorn Brain & Spine Immediately To Get a Consultation.

References

An, S. J., Kim, T. J., & Yoon, B. W. (2017). Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features of intracerebral hemorrhage: An update. Journal of Stroke, 19(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.5853/jos.2016.00864

Josephson, C. B., Frantzias, J., Samarasekera, N., & Salman, R. A. S. (2010). The persisting burden of intracerebral haemorrhage: Can effective treatments be found? PLoS Medicine, 7(10), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000353

Rincon, F., & Mayer, S. A. (2011). Intracerebral haemorrhage. Core Topics in Neuroanaesthesia and Neurointensive Care, 373(9675), 359–368. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511977558.024

Shao, Z., Tu, S., & Shao, A. (2019). Pathophysiological mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets in intracerebral hemorrhage. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10(September), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01079

Wu, L., Li, Y., Wang, X., Ren, X., Zhu, H., Sun, Y., … Shang, H. (2017). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Treatment of Cerebral Hemorrhage with NaoXueShu Oral Liquid. BioMed Research International, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8542576

ABOUT LONGHORN BRAIN & SPINE

Founded on Excellence

Founded by Neurosurgeon, Dr. Grant Booher, Longhorn Brain and Spine focuses on a patient-centered approach to alleviating North Texans from Neurological and Spinal Pain.  Dr. Booher and his clinical team believe in exhausting all non-invasive protocols first and if needed, employing the least invasive procedures necessary to treat the patients.

Our Beliefs

Dr. Booher believes in a conservative, individualized and holistic approach when it comes to his patients. He prefers exhausting all nonsurgical options and proudly offers the least invasive techniques when clinically indicated. He strives to treat every patient like a member of his family. During his free time, he and his wife enjoy watching sports, listening to Texas country music, and traveling.